Fact-Checking the Final Presidential Debate

— Mr. Trump

An attorney for the Trump Organization told The Times that the bank account Mr. Trump’s company owned in China is still open. Contrary to Mr. Trump’s claims, the bank account is not listed on any of his public financial disclosures, and his attorney would not identify the name of the financial institution.

— Mr. Trump.

The United States has taken in more than $60 billion in revenue from the tariffs that Mr. Trump imposed on $360 billion worth of Chinese goods.

But Mr. Trump’s frequent claim that the tariffs are paid for solely by China, not by Americans is wrong.

Whether a Chinese manufacturer, American importer or another company ultimately pays the cost of any particular U.S. tariff varies from product to product, depending on the ability of each party to negotiate.

But overall, economic research suggests that the burden of the tariffs has fallen heavily on American firms, and that domestic manufacturers and consumers have ended up paying a substantial portion of the tariffs.

— Mr. Trump

During an interview with “60 Minutes” in early March, Dr. Fauci did say, “there’s no reason to be walking around with a mask.” But the reason, he said at the time, was that there was a dire mask shortage and he was worried about health care providers and sick people “needing them.”

Dr. Fauci has taken strong issue with Mr. Trump’s repeated misleading claims that he argued against mask wearing.

“Anybody who has been listening to me over the last several months knows that a conversation does not go by where I do not strongly recommend that people wear masks,” Dr. Fauci said recently in an interview on ABC News’s “Start Here” podcast.

Dr. Fauci again explained that “very early on in the pandemic,” the authorities did not recommend masks to the general public because they were worried about shortages and hoarding. But that changed, he said, as it became clear that asymptomatic transmission was spreading the virus and that masks helped stop it.

“I have been on the airways, on the radio, on TV, begging people to wear masks,” Dr. Fauci said. “And I keep talking in the context of: Wear a mask, keep physical distance, avoid crowds, wash your hands and do things more outdoors versus indoors.”

— Mr. Trump

On the same day in January that Mr. Trump announced restrictions on travelers from China because of the coronavirus, Mr. Biden referred to the president’s “record of hysteria and xenophobia — hysterical xenophobia — and fear-mongering to lead the way instead of science.” It was not clear that Mr. Biden was referring to the travel restrictions, or whether he even knew about them; Mr. Trump had made the announcement only minutes before Mr. Biden took the stage at a campaign event.

For much of the primary, Mr. Biden did not explicitly state his position on the travel restrictions to China. Though Mr. Biden did tweet that “Banning all travel from Europe — or any other part of the world — will not stop it,” he was speaking in the context of the United States’ need for a comprehensive plan to respond to the coronavirus. His campaign told CNN in April that Mr. Biden is supportive of the travel restrictions from China.

Mr. Trump

It’s a little unclear exactly what Mr. Trump means by “recover,” but in several respects, this statement — which the president has made before — is lacking in evidence, and may even be misleading. Experts continue to monitor the virus and have attempted to calculate its typical fatality rate. One recent publication estimated that about 1.4 percent of people who catch the coronavirus will die. Young people, ages 25 to 44, might die only 0.1 percent of the time, the researchers said.

But older individuals are known to die at far higher rates — as do people with certain medical conditions, as well as Black, Latino, Indigenous and Native American individuals.

Experts have also repeatedly cautioned that the true death rate associated with the coronavirus has not yet been determined with confidence. Both infections and deaths are extremely difficult to tabulate while the pandemic rages on, especially while testing remains woefully inadequate in many parts of the world, including in the United States.

Death is also not the only way in which the coronavirus inflicts suffering on the people it infects. Thousands of people around the world continue to suffer lingering symptoms of Covid-19, sometimes weeks or months after the virus has apparently vacated their bodies. Researchers have said that the long-term consequences of the virus will likely continue to reveal themselves as the years wear on. Since the start of the pandemic, scientists have unveiled many unexpected symptoms and side effects of coronavirus cases — lists that they expect to grow.

— Mr. Trump

For years, Mr. Trump has said that he cannot release his tax returns because he is under audit by the Internal Revenue Service.

Mr. Trump was under audit before he became president and all presidents are automatically audited by the I.R.S. However, being under audit does not prevent a taxpayer from making his returns public.

Mr. Trump has suggested that his accountants have advised against him doing so and that it might worsen the outcome of the audit.

— Mr. Biden

Mr. Trump maintains a bank account in China, according to his tax returns, The New York Times reported this week.

“The foreign accounts do not show up on Mr. Trump’s public financial disclosures, where he must list personal assets, because they are held under corporate names. The identities of the financial institutions are not clear,” the Times reported. “The Chinese account is controlled by Trump International Hotels Management L.L.C., which the tax records show paid $188,561 in taxes in China while pursuing licensing deals there from 2013 to 2015.”

— Mr. Trump

This claim is based on an investigative report released last week by Senate Republicans that accused members of Mr. Biden’s family of cashing in on his vice presidency. The report claims that Hunter Biden “had a financial relationship” with Elena Baturina, a wealthy Russian businesswoman and the widow of a former mayor of Moscow. The report bases this claim on an unidentified “confidential document” showing that Ms. Baturina transferred $3.5 million in 2014 for “a Consultancy Agreement” to a bank account associated with a company called Rosemont Seneca Thornton that was associated with Hunter Biden’s business partners. Mr. Biden’s lawyer has said that he was not a co-founder of Rosemont Seneca Thornton, had no interest in it and did not have a financial relationship with Ms. Baturina. He did not respond to a question about whether Mr. Biden was paid by Rosemont Seneca Thornton or did consulting work for Ms. Baturina.

— Mr. Biden

Many of the states recently experiencing coronavirus surges are led by Republican governors or are in the Midwest, but “blue” states and other regions have not been spared. Virginia, Rhode Island, New Mexico, Colorado, and Washington have all seen increasing case counts.

Mr. Trump

Experts have repeatedly noted that immunity to the coronavirus is not yet fully understood. No single person can claim they are “immune” to the virus, in the sense that they cannot be infected again, or even that they cannot experience a second bout of disease.

While experts have noted encouraging signs that many people who recover from coronavirus infections may be able to develop strong and long-lasting immune responses that could at least partially protect them from a second brush with the virus, there is not yet clear data that demonstrates how long these immune responses persist.

Some of these lingering immune responses may protect people from getting serious Covid-19 a second time, for example, but might not make these individuals completely impervious to being infected with the virus, or passing it on to others. Certain individuals may fail to mount protective, long-lasting immune responses to the virus at all. A very small number of people may have already been infected by the virus a second time.

— Mr. Trump

Regulators at the Food and Drug Administration are likely still at least a month away from even considering an emergency authorization for a coronavirus vaccine. Pfizer, which is one of a handful of pharmaceutical companies with vaccines in late-stage clinical trials in the United States, has predicted imminent readouts of its clinical trial data, but said recently that it would not apply for emergency authorization of its vaccine — a step short of a full license — before the third week of November.

Through its crash vaccine development program, Operation Warp Speed, the Trump administration is already funding the manufacturing of millions of doses of vaccines and developing plans for distributing them if and when the F.D.A. does grant an emergency authorization.

But top health officials have said that a vaccine may not be widely available until next summer. Operation Warp Speed’s top scientist, Dr. Moncef Slaoui, said that Americans would most likely not be widely vaccinated until the middle of 2021, a timeline echoed by Dr. Robert R. Redfield, the director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

— Mr. Trump

Shortly after he tested positive for the coronavirus earlier this month, Mr. Trump began a potent combination of treatments, including the antiviral remdesivir, the steroid dexamethasone and an experimental antibody cocktail developed by Regeneron. Days later, after he left the hospital, Mr. Trump hailed the antibody treatment as a “cure” — a statement experts warned is exaggerated and has little evidence behind it.

No treatments have been shown to “cure” the coronavirus. While experimental antibody treatments like Regeneron’s have shown early promise in ongoing trials, experts caution that they have not been fully vetted and remain poorly understood as potential treatments for the virus.

— Mr. Trump

The United States is not “rounding the turn” when it comes to the coronavirus pandemic. In fact, there is now a third surge.

Over the past week, there have been an average of 60,777 cases per day, an increase of 33 percent from the average two weeks earlier, according to a New York Times database. Daily cases topped 70,000 for the first time since July on Tuesday and cases are on the rise in most states, with some setting records. The numbers are deeply concerning to public health officials.

In an interview last week, Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, the government’s top infectious disease expert, said he has long been concerned that the daily caseload has never dipped significantly below 20,000.

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